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                                    Paper代寫范文-媒體在社會中的作用

                                    來源:原創 發布日期:2022-05-06 10:11  閱讀: 作者:HotEssay
                                    文章導讀:下面為大家整理一篇關于Role of Media in Society的 Paper代寫 范文,供大家參考學習。本文是一篇面向留學生的媒體管理作業范文。主要內容是關于媒體的基本定義和內容,并分析了媒體在當...

                                      下面為大家整理一篇關于Role of Media in Society的Paper代寫范文,供大家參考學習。本文是一篇面向留學生的媒體管理作業范文。主要內容是關于媒體的基本定義和內容,并分析了媒體在當今社會中的作用。

                                    Paper代寫范文
                                    Paper代寫

                                      Media is considered to be the 4th pillar of the society while the other three being legislative,executive and judiciary.It plays an important role in the welfare of the society,working as an informer,an educator,a form of entertainment and an opinion influencer.In Malaysia,media and Politics are co-dependent because through this,democracy is formed.Mustafa(1999)stated that in this broad context of democracy,the mass media plays an important role by supplying media users with a platform to obtain information,exchange views and at the same time give feedback to the government;however this is overshadowed by the state's official view that the media should be functioning as an essential tool to promote'national development','national harmony'and'national security'.

                                      媒體被認為是社會的第四大支柱,其他三大支柱是立法、行政和司法。它在社會福利方面發揮著重要作用,充當著告密者、教育者、娛樂形式和輿論影響者的角色。在馬來西亞,媒體和政治是相互依存的,因為通過這一點,民主得以形成。Mustafa(1999)指出,在這一廣泛的民主背景下,大眾媒體發揮著重要作用,為媒體用戶提供了一個獲取信息、交換意見、同時向政府提供反饋的平臺;然而,國家官方認為媒體應該成為促進“國家發展”、“國家和諧”和“國家安全”的重要工具,這一觀點掩蓋了這一點。

                                      The Mainstream Media and Politics

                                      The Malaysian mainstream press can be categorised as having gone through a major period of change since the early 1980s in terms of ownership and well as flourished amendments and policies that serves as a form of gate-keeping and control over the media.All forms of media introduced,newspaper,radio and television,directly went under the control of the government or companies that were aligned with the government.

                                      In Malaysia,obtaining information is often a tedious affair and can be frustrating applied not just for journalists but for the public because there are no Freedom of Information(FOI)laws.One of the events that aided towards a tight control over the mainstream media was during the 1969 elections,Barisan National while retaining a majority,lost many seats to extremist Chinese and Malay parties Yesudhasan&Wong(2010)stated that Malaysia experienced one of the worst incident of ethnic violence in its history that came to be known as the'May 13 incident'.As part of the government's plan to sustain social order then,the government suspended the publications for all newspapers for two days starting from 16 May 1969,subsequently introduced a censorship law and banned the circulation of certain foreign magazines and newspapers that contained reports of the violence in Kuala Lumpur(Mustafa,1999)

                                      Due to the incident,the government declared to have the rights to censor items that were deemed'dangerous to national security'.The Malaysian government appears to be misusing arguments of religious sensitive and cultural issues to manipulate the political system by limiting political freedom of the opposition and civil society which makes Malaysia a less democratic state(Azizuddin,2008)Then,a new established body,the National Operations Council(NOC)was formed to resuscitate parliamentary democracy,rebuild public confidence and engender ethic harmony and a form contributing towards forming ethic harmony;an amendment was form whereby it prohibited any act,speech or publication that has a tendency to bring feelings of ill-will and enmity between the various ethnic groups(Zaharom,1999)Thus the strong hold over the mainstream media begins.

                                      Many government leaders in the developing world justify their control over the media in terms of jealousy guarding and guiding its members towards the supposedly noble path of national development and to ensure that the media does not fall into the'wrong hands'or in other words,state control over the mainstream media has clearly been justified in the name of national development and national security(Mustafa,2004)

                                      A research done by Kaur and Halimahton(2004)analysed contents of several election-related SMS for the 2004 general election sent from the nomination date until a few days after the election ended that were being sent among 238 respondents.This number was the final sample for the pilot study.According to research,51 general election-related messages sent by friends,colleagues,family members,political party members and NGOs were collected between nomination day,13 March 2004,and polling day,21 March 2004.Only one message could categorized as informative,provided by communication provider MAXIS,informing voters that they should check their voting status and voting location through SMS.Only a few proved to be informative and useful in helping voters with information on the general election.19 out of 50 were shown to be ridiculing or condemning messages towards Barisan National.

                                      60.5%of the respondents found the election-related messages to be useful and informative.27%found the messages to be funny where as about 6%found the messages to be a nuisance.Thought most found the SMS to be useful and informative,only 31.9%were influenced to support a party of individual base on what they received.Data collected showed that the public primarily uses SMS to for jokes or to criticize certain candidates or political parties,no serious discussion was found among the sample of SMS messages to persuade voters to vote in a certain way.

                                      Another form of alternative media,Al-Jazera English(AJE)believes in their mission to'provide voice to the voiceless'.In a survey done by AJE on how AJE is perceived by participants,the respondents of the survey gave a ranking of more positive than negative,showing the respondents had a favourable perception of AJE with regard to how it performed the conciliatory media functions(Mohammed and Power,2010)Among the points that participants agreed on was that AJE'provided a public place for politically underrepresented groups','AJE provides multiple view points on a diversity of controversial issues'and that AJE'represents the interests of the international public in general rather than a specific group of people'.

                                      During the protest that broke out in November 10,2007 organized by BERSIH with the aim of reforming the electoral process,up to an estimated of 40,000 protestors came with force to draw attention from the government.What began as a peaceful protest,the Malaysian police tried to vanquish protestors with tear gas and fire hoses.The image of such going ons were shocking and while,the mainstream broadcast and print failed to cover the protests but obtain minimal coverage,AJE covered the whole thing live and in detail(Mohammed and Power,2010)The coverage done by AJE was then placed online,on YouTube,receiving more than 250,000 viewers within the first week of the protest resulting in a largely stated influenced media resulted in the Malaysian mainstream media's'largest credibility crisis to date'(Mohammed and Power,2010)

                                      Media,Politics and the Public Sphere

                                      The role of the media is to act as a safety valve to release any pent-up emotions on any issue or combination of issues facing our country;with the heavy ownership by government,the credibility and reliability of our mainstream media might die out one day.The media also acts as a public sphere that is critically important for modern societies as it serves as a forum whereby the public can communicate collectively on relevant issues as well as allowing citizens to inform or update themselves on societal developments to observe and control political,economic and other elites(Gerhards and Schafer,2010)

                                      However,due to the hold back and tight gate-keeping from the mainstream media,Mustafa(2005)stated that the public sphere in Malaysian society has been further constrained so that ordinary citizens and concerned civil have not been able to fully express their views and to directly participate in the country's democratic process.Earlier this year,NTV7 producer resigned in protest over his company's decision to stop his talk show from commenting on the upcoming by-election at Hulu Selangor,following pressure said to have emanated directly from the ruling coalition.A TV2 documentary on the controversial Bakun Dam and the forced relocation of Sarawak's natives was forced off the air,just before the Sibu parliamentary by-election took place.It is clear that open debate has little room to flourish in Malaysia,(Yeoh,2010)

                                      Malaysiakini,an example of a alternative publication that flourished tremendously after the 2008 general elections.Steele(2009)stated that it is not the Internet that challenges the Barisan National's stranglehold power but it is actually the norms and values of independent journalism that have made MalaysiaKini such a threat to government authorities.This ideology of creating independent journalism with the alternative media not only changes those who work within the public sphere but also creates a democratic space for public discourse,one that the Malaysian society lacks.It not only gives voice to the voiceless but concrete prove or forms of information through video,audio and feedback tools.It shows media users sides of stories that they may not see.The seemingly mechanistic tools of fairness and balance,'did you get the quote from the other side?'become a means of guaranteeing that all voices will be heard(Steele,2009)

                                      Conclusion

                                      The media plays an important role in the welfare of the society,working as an informer,an educator,a form of entertainment and an opinion influencer.With the current media ownership that poses credible threat and questions the credibility to the role of the media;media users need to consider,who to trust now?Political issues are highly dependent on the media as it is highlights what is important and is highly influential thus it works as a form to influence the political mind-set of media users.With the mainstream constantly bombarding pro-government issues towards society,media users now yearn for a different point of view,shifting to the alternative media to abstract that diverse opinion.In sight of how the media and politics are inter-wined,it is important that the opinions and comments of the public take place to form a democracy,in the words of Abraham Lincoln;for the people,by the people and of the people.Thus,the public sphere is important in the role to collect or obtain the voices of the public.The alternative media has already taken the role in proving that space for the public to take part in forming the country's democracy;it is now up to the mainstream media to do the same,for a better political constitution of the country.

                                      媒體在社會福利方面發揮著重要作用,充當著信息提供者、教育者、娛樂形式和輿論影響者的角色。當前的媒體所有權構成了可信的威脅,并對媒體角色的可信度提出了質疑;媒體用戶需要考慮,現在該信任誰?政治問題高度依賴于媒體,因為它突出了什么是重要的,什么是具有高度影響力的,因此它是影響媒體用戶政治心態的一種形式。隨著主流媒體不斷向社會炮轟親政府問題,媒體用戶現在渴望一種不同的觀點,轉而使用替代媒體來抽象這種不同的觀點。鑒于媒體和政治是如何交織在一起的,用亞伯拉罕·林肯的話來說,公眾的意見和評論形成一個民主制度是很重要的;為了人民,為了人民,為了人民。因此,公共領域在收集或獲取公眾聲音方面發揮著重要作用。另類媒體已經在證明公眾參與形成國家民主的空間方面發揮了作用;現在,主流媒體也應該采取同樣的行動,為國家制定更好的政治憲法。

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