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下面為大家整理一篇優秀的Paper代寫范文--Is absenteeism a predictor，文章描述在當今的社會，曠工是組織不會太在意的但存在的巨大問題。也許現在是時候，讓組織更關注一點在曠工這一問題上了，因為這個問題可能是自愿離職營業額率的預測指標。當員工們離職時，可能對于生產力，及時服務客戶，員工士氣，更重要的是組織的底線產生極大影響。
Voluntary Turnovers-Is Absenteeism A Predictor?
Chapter One-Introduction To The Problem
In today's society,absenteeism is a huge problem that organizations do not pay much attention to.Maybe now is the time that organizations place a little more focus on absenteeism as this problem could be a predictor of voluntary turnover rates.When employees leave their jobs,sometimes it may have an affect on productivity,customers being serviced in a timely a manner,employee morale and most importantly the organization's bottom line.
Voluntary turnover can be internal or external.Internal voluntary turnover is when an employee takes another position within the organization.External voluntary occurs when an employee leaves the organization all together.The focus of this research will focus on external voluntary turnover.There are many factors that may cause an employee to leave his job.Factors such as not being satisfied with pay,the working conditions or hours,or even because advancement opportunities are not available are some of causes of voluntary turnovers.This paper will seek to determine if excessive absenteeism can actually be a predictor of voluntary turnovers.
Can organizations predict voluntary turnover rates based on absenteeism within the organization?
Purpose Of Research
Turnover is a topic that has been widely studied over the years;however,there is very little empirical data that exists in reference to absenteeism.Steers and Mowday(1981)model will be used to determine if there is a relationship between voluntary turnovers and absenteeism.Since turnovers can become a serious problem for organizations,additional research should be done to determine the correlation between the two variables.Excessive turnovers can eventually hurt an organization's financial performance.In order to determine if a relationship exists,organizations will first need to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary turnovers.According to Sullivan(2009),some studies indicate as many as two-thirds of employees of employees are ready to go.
The compensatory model suggests that absenteeism combined with turnover rates are a form of work withdrawal.There is a second model that suggests the two variables are completely independent of one another.The third model,progression of withdrawal model suggests employees go through stages of psychological withdrawal before actually leaving an organization.Due to these gaps in literature,more research should be conducted to determine if absenteeism could predict voluntary turnover rates.
Significance Of Study
Employee turnover is a problem that is continuing to grow.Employers will need to develop some retention strategies as employees are looking for other opportunities.“Employee turnover is on the rise next year,based on a survey that 60 percent of workers are unhappy with their present jobs and plan to leave in 2010(HR Focus,2010,pg.8).Organizations should closely evaluate the types of absenteeism that is occurring within their organization.By taking a closer look,organizations might be able to find a correlation between absenteeism and voluntary turnover rates.The goal of this research is to take Steers and Mowday's model and compare it against other models to determine if turnover rates can accurately be predicted.
Organizations can determine by differentiating between voluntary and involuntary absences the amount of turnover they will have within the organization.
Chapter 2-Literature Review
Voluntary turnovers are managerial issues that many organizations are not placing enough focus.Managers should try to determine what is causing employees to leave their organizations voluntarily.Voluntary turnovers can become very costly to an organization's bottom line.Once managers actually begin to take the time to study predictors of turnover within their organization,they can begin working on retention strategies to keep their employees.The review of literature will include that of Steers&Mowday,(1981)as well as the findings of other theorists on predicting voluntary turnover rates and its relationship to other variables.
First organizations need to separate all involuntary turnovers from their voluntary turnovers.“Voluntary turnovers,in contrast,is a discretionary behavior on the part of the employee and,consequently,has been categorized with absenteeism and lateness as a form of withdrawal from the organization”(Morrow,McElroy,Laczniak,Fenton,1999).With the given definition of voluntary turnovers,organizations need to focus on who is leaving their organization and why.
Review Of Models
Researchers at the Tavistock Institute(Hill&Trist,1955)suggest that absenteeism is a coping mechanism to turnover(Morrow et al.1999).In conducting their research it was argued that employees who engaged in absenteeism did so to relieve stress or because they were dissatisfied.For these reasons,the researchers believed that at this point,turnover became an unnecessary factor.Basically,these researchers believe that there is no relationship between the two variables,absenteeism and voluntary turnover rates.
A second model also suggests that these variables have no relationship.“Mobley(1982),has theorized situations in which no relationship would exist,such as in those cases where turnover is the result of pull factors(an attractive job)as opposed to push factors(Morrow et al.1999).Herzberg,Mausner,Peterson,and Capwell(1957),created the progression of withdrawal model,which is the third model that is being evaluated.The progression of withdrawal suggests that a relationship between absenteeism and turnover does exist.According to this model,if an employee continues to be dissatisfied,then that employee will go through a withdrawal process.The process includes the employee being late for work,then progressing to being absent and finally leaving the company.According,to a meta-analysis by Mitra,Jenkins,and Gupta(1992),there is empirical data that states the correlation between absenteeism and turnover was a positive.33(Morrow et al.,1999).
Steers&Mowday,(1981)model on absenteeism and voluntary turnover incorporated other factors that might involve reasons as to why an employee would continue to work for a company or leave.The Steers&Mowday model includes factors on voluntary turnover rates that organizations cannot control.According to Steers&Mowday model,job expectations and values interact with organizational characteristics,experiences,and job performance in determining an employee's affective responses to a job(Dreher,1982).
The first category that Steers&Mowday model concentrates on is the actual work factors that may influence an employee to want to leave a company.In order to argue this point Steers&Mowday cited work produced by Sussman and Cogswell.The work suggests that when an employee is considering changing employment factors such family and even involvement in the community could be an influence.Steers&Mowday second category involves the economy and market conditions.These theorists believe that these factors too influence whether an employee will leave or stay.
Voluntary turnovers are a major problem that organizations are not paying enough attention too.Many organizations still have not realized just how costly voluntary turnovers can cost them.Absenteeism as a whole is not enough to determine if an employee will voluntarily leave a company.Organizations will have to look at the types of absenteeism that are occurring within their company.Based on the analysis,leaving early could not be positively used as a determining factor to predict voluntary turnover.Lateness,failure to call in and absences without leave did have some variance in relation to absenteeism and voluntary turnovers.Based on this information,organizations should begin to take steps to develop programs that may help decrease their absenteeism rates which in return could possibly help decrease their voluntary turnover rates.
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